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"List 3 differences between a plant cell and an animal cell"

Plant and animal cells are eukaryotic cells which share many similarities like they consist of membrane-bound organelles like nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus and lysosomes. They also have a cytoplasm with cytoskeleton elements that is enclosed in a cell membrane. Plant cells can be larger than the animal cells. Also, they have many differences between them that are listed below.

1.     Cell Wall: Plants cells have rigid cell walls around the cell membrane while animal cells don’t have cell walls. The main component of the cell wall is cellulose but it is made of other components too like pectin, lignin and other soluble proteins. They provide plants structural support and also give them protection.

2.    Chloroplasts: Plant cells have chloroplasts while animal cells do not have them. As plants are photoautotrophic, they can make their own food with the help of sunlight. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants synthesise carbohydrates, and this procedure happens in the chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are double membrane organelles that have thylakoid membranes with chlorophyll pigments embedded in them that absorb the sunlight. Their inner membrane surrounds stroma in which the light independent stage of photosynthesis takes place.

3.     Vacuoles: The plants have only one large, permanent vacuole, while animals only have small, temporary vacuoles that can be more than one in number. In plants, they are liquid-filled, large parts of the cell which have many pigments, enzymes and solutes present. It can also store food and water and provide turgidity to the plants. The small animal vacuoles can store water, ions and waste.

Some other differences can be that plant cells do not have centrioles that are needed in animal cells for cell division, plant cells do not have cilia, and plants have autotrophic mode of nutrition, while animals have heterotrophic. 

To wrap up:

Plant Cells

Animal Cells

Plants cells have rigid cell walls around the cell membrane

Animal cells don’t have cell walls

Plant cells have chloroplasts where photosynthesis can take place

Animal cells do not have chloroplasts

Plants have only one large, permanent vacuole

Animals only have small, temporary vacuoles that can be more than one in number

Plant cells do not have centrioles, cilia and are autotrophic

Animal Cells have centrioles, cilia, and are heterotrophic

Both have nucleus, mitochondria, ER, golgi body, lysosomes, cell membrane & cytoplasm

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