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Draw a labelled diagram of an animal cell and a plant cell. Give a function for each item named.

 Animal cell:

Labelled Diagram of an Animal Cell

Animal cell is a eukaryotic cell and it has no cell wall, chloroplast, or a large vacuole. Instead, the animal cell has a cytoplasm enclosed in a cell membrane. The cytoplasm has certain organelles that specialise in different functions of the body. These organelles are described below:

·      Cell membrane: It is a phospholipid bilayer that restricts the entry of some materials like hydrophilic and water-soluble molecules, while allowing movement of hydrophobic materials. It has transport proteins embedded that help in transport of such polar molecules. Also, they have receptors in the form of glycolipids that help in cell communication.

·     Cytoplasm: Cytoplasm is present in each cell, mainly composed of water, mineral salts, and proteins. All of the organelles are located in the cytoplasm.

·    Nucleus: The nucleus is a double membrane organelle with nuclear pores through which mRNA can pass through. It also has nucleolus which is the site of ribosome production. It has DNA, the genetic material that controls most of the activities in a cell. It manages the cell activities like cell division.

·     Endoplasmic Reticulum: ER is made up of elongated sacs called cisternae, and there are two types of ER: rough and smooth. The rough ER has ribosomes embedded onto it, where protein is produced and then the ER transports the proteins in the cell. The smooth ER has no ribosomes attached; hence it has a smooth surface. Also, it produces lipids and steroids, and metabolises carbohydrates.

·    Golgi body/ apparatus: The proteins made in ER can be transported to the Golgi body where proteins are modified and packaged. Then, these proteins are released in the form of vesicles.

·    Mitochondria: It is a double membrane organelle that carries the process of respiration that uses oxidation of glucose to produce energy in the form of ATP.

·    Vacuole: They are small, temporary that can store water, ions and waste.

·    Ribosome: Ribosomes are sites for production of proteins.

· Centrioles: These are microtubule organizing centres, which are involved in cell division. 

· Lysosome: A lysosome is a pouch of enzymes, which break down large macromolecules, and also degrade toxic and old cell components. 

    ·      Microfilaments: These protein molecules are part of the extracellular matrix that keeps the organelles in a specific place in the cytoplasm. 

Plant Cell

Labelled Diagram of a Plant Cell
A plant cell is also a eukaryotic cell and it has the nucleus, ribosomes, ER, Golgi body, mitochondria, but does not have centrioles, and small vacuoles. Instead, it has a large vacuole, a cell wall and chloroplasts in the cytoplasm.

·       Cell Wall: Plants cells have rigid cell walls around the cell membrane while animal cells don’t have cell walls. The main component of the cell wall is cellulose but it is made of other components too like pectin, lignin and other soluble proteins. They provide plants structural support and also give them protection.

·     Chloroplasts: Plant cells have chloroplasts while animal cells do not have them. As plants are photoautotrophic, they can make their own food with the help of sunlight. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants synthesise carbohydrates, and this procedure happens in the chloroplasts.

·       Vacuoles: The plants have only one large, permanent vacuole, while animals only have small, temporary vacuoles that can be more than one in number. In plants, they are liquid-filled, large parts of the cell which have many pigments, enzymes and solutes present. It can also store food and water and provide turgidity to the plants.

·       Amyloplasts: They are used to store starch in plants. 

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