A genome contains the complete set of genetic information of the organism. It also has key instructions that would help an organism to grow and develop in different stages of life. The DNA is the genome of organisms which gives a unique chemical code in the form of the order and sequence of the nucleotides A (adenine), T (thymine), G (guanine) and C (cytosine).
The DNA molecule is present in the nucleus in the eukaryotes and has two antiparallel strands with a double helix shape. In prokaryotes which don’t have a nucleus, the DNA is present in the cytoplasm. A DNA molecule when wrapped around proteins form chromosomes, and within each chromosome, there are genes that code for various proteins that determine our genetic characteristics like eye colour or enzymes.
Hence, the genome codes for all the proteins that are needed by our body to function properly. Like the genome codes for the enzymes that take place in respiration or other bodily processes. All organisms have different genomes. The plant genome is different from humans. Hence, the researchers study the genomes to identify such genes that are associated with any disease or have an important role. For example, in humans, BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 are genes that are associated with breast cancer. The plants have genes that protect them from diseases and harmful situations like drought. Hence, the genomes can be studied so that human beings can understand the scientific phenomena (in terms of medicine or agriculture) in a better way.