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Explain how a stent works to treat Cardiovascular Disease? (3 marks)

Cardiovascular disease is associated with the deposit of fats and lipids in the blood vessels like arteries that can then cause blood clots. These clots can prevent the flow of blood in the body. For example, if there are fat deposits in the coronary arteries, then the oxygen-rich blood supply to the heart tissue is restricted, due to which heart failure might happen.  
There are different surgical procedures that can treat CVD, like placement of stents in the arteries. For instance, if we place a stent in the coronary artery, it will remove the fat deposits and open the blockage. When a tiny mesh like stent is placed on a catheter with a balloon and is inserted into an artery, the balloon is inflated once inside the artery and then the wired mesh removes the fat deposits because the artery expands. Once inside, the balloon and catheter are removed and the stent stays in position. This will clear up the lumen and the blood flow will happen smoothly, allowing more oxygen to be transported in the body.

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