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What is the significance of Lady Macbeth's speech in Macbeth?

Lady Macbeth’s speech achieves a lot of goals for the writer. It portrays an interesting amalgamation of literary devices that help to get the point across. But most of all, the act challenges the socially constructed idea of submissive and passive wives. Shakespeare makes ‘the’ women commit a crime on the expense of the man to challenge the stereotype  that both genders were expected to fall into. 

The speech in itself conveys the point through some essential linguistic devices and other ways:

Repetition: Repeating the words to create an impact. For instance:

‘’Out, damned spot! Out, I say!”

No more o’ that, my lord, no more o’ that: you mar all with this starting

Here’s the smell of the blood still: all the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little hand. Oh, oh, oh!

To bed, to bed! there’s knocking at the gate: come, come, come, come, give me your hand. What’s done cannot be undone.–To bed, to bed, to bed!

Repetition of the words work to get the point across in a more emotional, frustrated and helpless way here, to show the mental state of Lady Macbeth after committing the crime.

Punctuation: The different types of punctuations, just at the ‘right’ places, work to ensure that the reader feels the tension that befalls the character. For example, at the beginning she says:

Out, damned spot! out, I say!–One: two: why, then, ’tis time to do’t.–Hell is murky!–Fie, my lord, fie!

The urgency and desperation is conveyed through the style.

Rhetoric: Rhetorical questioning is used to jolt the reader and to add weight to the words of the character.

 a soldier, and afeard? What need we fear who knows it, when none can call our power to account?

The Thane of Fife had a wife: where is she now? –What, will these hands ne’er be clean?

As per the chickens coming home to roost principle, the main significance of the scene is to demonstrate that Lady Macbeth harvested whatever she had sown earlier - while committing the crime of killing the person.

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